Winchester 1866 shooting in Prague

.44 Henry Flat

Winchester Model 1866: The Gun That Won the West

The Winchester Model 1866, often referred to as the "Yellow Boy" due to its distinctive brass frame, is a legendary firearm with a rich history that has left an indelible mark on the American West. It is a rifle that played a pivotal role in shaping the nation's history, earning its place as a true icon of American firearms.

Production and Service History

The Winchester Model 1866 was introduced by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1866. It was a significant evolution of the earlier Henry rifle, which was chambered in the innovative .44 Henry rimfire cartridge. Oliver F. Winchester, the company's founder, recognized the potential for improvement in the Henry design and tasked Benjamin Tyler Henry with refining the rifle.

The Model 1866, like its predecessor, featured a lever-action mechanism and a tubular magazine under the barrel. However, the most noticeable change was the adoption of a more practical and robust centerfire cartridge, the .44 Henry Flat cartridge. This change in ammunition improved the rifle's reliability and overall performance.

The Model 1866 quickly gained popularity among civilians and found its way into the hands of lawmen, cowboys, settlers, and Native American tribes during the tumultuous era of westward expansion. It became an iconic firearm of the American frontier, often referred to as the "Gun That Won the West."


The Winchester Model 1866 incorporated several design elements that set it apart from its predecessors and contributed to its success:

Lever Action: Like the Henry rifle, the Model 1866 featured a lever-action mechanism, allowing for rapid firing and the ability to maintain a high rate of fire.

Tubular Magazine: The tubular magazine located under the barrel could hold up to 15 rounds of the .44 Henry Flat cartridge, making the rifle capable of sustained fire.

Brass Frame: The distinctive brass frame of the Model 1866 earned it the nickname "Yellow Boy." This design choice was not only aesthetically pleasing but also practical, as it reduced the risk of corrosion and enhanced the rifle's longevity.

Iron Buttplate: The Model 1866 was equipped with an iron buttplate, which was an improvement over the brass buttplate of the Henry rifle, adding durability.

Octagonal Barrel: Many Model 1866 rifles featured an octagonal barrel, which not only contributed to the gun's elegant appearance but also added strength to the design.

Caliber: The Winchester Model 1866 was chambered in .44 Henry Flat, which was a centerfire cartridge. It had a reputation for accuracy and was well-suited for the ranges encountered in the American West. The .44 Henry Flat cartridge was an improvement over the original .44 Henry rimfire cartridge, offering better reliability and ignition.


While the original Winchester Model 1866 design is well-known, several notable variants and models emerged over the years:

Musket: A longer-barreled version with a bayonet lug, often used by military and law enforcement.

Carbine: Short-barreled versions were favored by cavalry units and became popular on the frontier due to their compactness.

Saddle Ring Carbine: Some Model 1866 carbines featured a saddle ring for easy attachment to a saddle or scabbard, making them popular among cowboys and ranchers.

Sporting Rifle: These rifles often featured deluxe engraving, fine wood stocks, and other aesthetic enhancements, catering to affluent buyers.

Centennial Model: In 1966, a commemorative version of the Model 1866 was released to mark the rifle's 100th anniversary. It featured gold plating and special engraving.

Interesting Facts

Developmental Evolution: The Model 1866 was an important step in the developmental evolution of Winchester lever-action rifles, paving the way for subsequent iconic models like the Model 1873 and the Model 1894.

The Gun That Won the West: The Model 1866 earned this moniker because it was widely used during the western expansion of the United States, becoming synonymous with the rugged and adventurous spirit of the frontier.

Favored by Outlaws and Lawmen: The Model 1866 was a favorite firearm of both outlaws and lawmen of the Old West. Figures like Jesse James and Pat Garrett were known to carry it.

Collectors' Item: Today, original Winchester Model 1866 rifles are highly sought after by collectors, with well-preserved examples commanding high prices at auctions and sales.

Continued Popularity: The legacy of the Model 1866 lives on in modern reproductions and replicas, allowing enthusiasts and shooters to experience the rifle's history and design.


The Winchester Model 1866, with its revolutionary lever-action design, centerfire cartridge, and distinctive brass frame, is an enduring symbol of the American West. It played a pivotal role in shaping the nation's history and became an iconic firearm associated with cowboys, lawmen, and settlers during the era of westward expansion. Today, it continues to be celebrated as a remarkable piece of American firearms history, cherished by collectors and enthusiasts alike for its timeless design and historical significance.


  • Winchester - Name
  • lever action rifle - Type
  • Winchester Repeating Arms Company - Manufacturer
  • 1866 - Model
  • .44 Henry Flat - Caliber
  • lever action - Action type
  • John Browning - Designer
  • 1866 - Designed
  • 1866 - In service
  • 4.3 kg - Weight
  • 1250 mm - Length
  • 45-140 m (50-150 yards) - Firing range

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